Skip to main content
Skip to McMaster Navigation Skip to Site Navigation Skip to main content
McMaster logo
COVID-19 information and updates

Find the most recent updates here, as well as FAQs and information for students, faculty and staff.

Confidence Intervals

Confidence Intervals

Resource: Confidence Intervals Using the z-Distribution (Introduction to Applied Statistics for Psychology Students – University of Saskatchewan Open Press)  
Type: Textbook chapter 
Who it’s for:Anyone looking for an introduction to statistical inference: moving from knowledge about a sample to knowledge about a population. Keep in mind this resource focuses on using the z-distribution for calculating confidence intervals for means (the t-distribution is covered in section 8.3 of this resource). 
Why we love it: This textbook chapter will help you understand how the 99, 95, and 90 percent confidence intervals you often see are calculated.